Jury nullification instructions, constitutional republic, state militia, no Lobbyists, no eminent domain, one bill per legislator per year, voting by internet, public school curriculum written by county, trial by jury for everything, no unfunded mandates, taxes spent locally first, zero corporate taxes, federal law enforcement restricted.
Reposted from http://www.soj51.net
Liberty first, liberty last, liberty always! Without Liberty, nothing else matters. Without Liberty, you will not be allowed to keep the money. Without Liberty, you will not be allowed to use your property. Without Liberty, you may not be allowed to keep the property. There are aspects of our lives, our property, our business, our culture, in which government has no place. The Constitutional Convention, for Jefferson, will put in place a government which will be strictly limited in scope, size, and power. The Constitution will adhere to the founding principles of this nation. The Jefferson Constitution will bind government, not the people. “We were endowed by our creator with certain inalienable rights; among those are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Government has only one purpose which is to secure the rights of the governed. John Locke called these rights the Natural Rights of Life, Liberty and Property. Samuel Adams added to Locke, with the statement, “Life, Liberty, and Property together with the means to defend those as best we can.” There will be no eminent domain in Jefferson. People create government to secure the Liberties they hold most dear. Government is our creation and will never be our master. A balanced budget will be a Constitutional mandate. Debt will be limited to dire emergency as defined by 2/3 vote of the legislature, and a majority popular vote. Debt will be limited by Constitution to a term of five years. Unfunded liabilities will be Unconstitutional. Eminent Domain will be Unconstitutional. Jefferson will endeavor and participate in all efforts to regain control over all state lands from Federal management. Jefferson will join efforts headed by the American Lands Council to this end.
The Jefferson Constitution will outline the structure for our new state. Our goal is a state with equal representation for each county in the State Senate. Our Assembly will consist of representation at a ratio of one Assemblyman for each twenty thousand citizens, or less, based upon the State Constitutional Convention. Each and every county, no matter how sparsely populated, will have a minimum of one Legislator in the State Assembly, and will have equal representation in our Senate. Lobbyist will be illegal.
The Jefferson Legislature will meet for 90 days per year. Odd years will be spent creating a two year budget. Jefferson’s budget will be zero sums. In other words, each department or agency will have to justify its budget in its entirety for each budget cycle. Even years will be spent on legislative matters. Each Legislator will only be allowed to introduce one bill per legislative cycle. The Constitution will mandate a periodic review to eliminate superfluous or arbitrary laws or regulations. Bills, by law, must be placed on the Jefferson Legislative website, a minimum of 30 days prior to the vote in the legislature. No amendments will be allowed once the bill has been posted to the website. Each legislator will maintain a website where constituents can “vote” yes, or no, for each legislative bill during the public posting time. The results of those votes shall be archived on the legislator’s website.
Jefferson will be led by the Governor. The Governor will be the chief executive of Jefferson and as such, will oversee executive offices and their officials. The Governor will act on behalf of Jefferson in matters of state. The Secretary of State will also act as Lt Governor in the event of absence or incapacity of the Governor. The Secretary of State will be an elected office. The Secretary of State will, oversee elections, articles of incorporation and related affairs. The Secretary of State will also have the duty to vote in the Jefferson Senate in the event of a tie vote.
The Jefferson Supreme Court will be comprised of 7 Justices. These will be elected officers, elected by district, who serve during good behavior for a period of ten years. State Appellate court Judges will be elected officers who will serve during good behavior for a period of four years. Appellate and Supreme Court Judges will be elected by district as apportioned by the Constitutional Convention.
Superior Court Judges will be elected for a period of four years, by each county. A system of Justices of the Peace will adjudicate misdemeanors in each county as well as other duties. Family law and other minor court officers will be selected in a manner approved by each county. Binding arbitration may be conducted by attorneys provided the involved parties are in agreement and sign contracts agreeing to that manner of adjudication.
A trial by jury is an inviolate, inalienable right. Any matter of civil or criminal law with consequences of more than one hundred dollars is to be adjudicated by a jury of the defendant’s peers within the county in which the act took place. State appellate courts will operate by circuit. Appellate Courts will try state responsibility cases in the county in which the act took place, using county residents as a jury pool.
Jury nullification is an inalienable right. Juries shall be instructed appropriately.
Courts and court security will be funded by the state. County Jails are the responsibility of the respective county. Appellate and Supreme Court Opinions can be subject to Executive and Legislative review if so requested within a period of one year following the opinion. Opinions can be reversed if so voted by the legislature and approved by the Executive.
Judicial opinions or rulings are and by Constitution must be limited to the issues at fact, which are being raised by the parties to the action. As a final act to strengthen the rights of the people, the Judicial will recognize the right and fact of Pro Se litigants. Jefferson State will not require its Judges to be lawyers. The right of the people to act in their own defense is an inalienable right and will be respected in the courts of Jefferson as will the right of the jury to nullify.
Our system of revenue collection will be unique and will provide checks upon the power of the state and federal government. Our Constitution will codify a system where Counties collect taxes, after which they pass to the state that portion of the dollar which fulfills that counties responsibility for the State operating budget. The State will never be in a position to hold a county hostage with its own money. Unfunded mandates will be unconstitutional. Local decisions requiring local revenue will be made locally. The State will provide input and advice if requested by the county. There will be no state sponsored welfare programs. Welfare will be handled by church groups and community service organizations. Utah has a very successful private welfare organization. We will work toward that end. Federal dollars will be assigned to successful and efficient community, or county organizations to help the needy. Federal dollars, behavioral health dollars will be portioned to community hospitals or County Health organizations. Again, local decisions made locally.
Federal income taxes will be sent to a pass through account held by the state for transmittal to the Federal Government conditioned upon its adherence to Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution. We will make every conceivable effort to create a state of affairs through which the Federal Government will not be able to use Jefferson’s money to coerce compliant behavior. Federal monies coming to the states will be apportioned to the counties. One example is Federal Highway money. This revenue is used to fund Cal-Trans. We will give the money to the Counties and the State will only supply engineering advice to maintain State Responsibility roads.
The Financial Model for our new state is on our website, http://www.soj51.net . The model is open. The user can alter tax rates to see what the impacts would be for different counties and different tax rates.
Jefferson will have a zero corporate tax rate designed to encourage innovation and business growth. Jefferson hopes to entice many, if not all of the thousands of businesses which leave California each and every year to relocate to Jefferson.
Our financial model was constructed with the latest budget figures available from California. These figures were not constructed by the Jefferson Committee. They are budget figures used by the State of California.
Jefferson intends to dramatically reduce the number and jurisdiction of Executive branch agencies. The various offices of Jefferson will facilitate the dispersal of appropriate federal money to the respective counties, act as advisers, as lead agency during mult-icounty events, and act as arbitrators when counties cannot agree upon actions which affect multiple counties.
In order to facilitate the organization of Jefferson, all valid licenses will be automatically renewed for a period of two years. This will give the State time to establish infrastructure and to determine which licenses will be required, (far fewer than California), and how to ensure continuing education where it is necessary for the health and safety of the public who choose to use those licensed services.
State agencies and their intrusion into the lives of Jeffersonians will be greatly reduced. We do not need, or want, government by staff or agency. Jefferson will have representative government, through Constitutional Republic. The offices of the executive branch will be responsible to the people whom they are supposed to serve. Government malfeasance will be a crime. Breach of the oath of office will be a crime. Abuse of power will be a crime. Any and all alleged infractions resulting, will be the jurisdiction of the County Sheriff for the county affected and the local jurisdiction of the District Attorney and local courts. This will help to ensure that the state will not have unwelcome intrusion into the affairs of any given county, or its citizens. The above applies to all state agencies, offices, and officials.
Cal Trans will be replaced with the Office of State Engineer. That office will be responsible to provide expertise to counties when it is requested for infrastructure projects, materials acquisition, and related projects. State infrastructure projects will be overseen by this office and work will be contracted locally to the county in which the project is constructed. Federal Highway monies will be distributed to counties for maintenance or construction of State responsibility roads and infrastructure. The State Engineer is also responsible for facilitating, mining, appropriative water rights, and other areas of production of vital importance for the success of the economy of Jefferson.
The State office of Agriculture will be responsible for facilitating and enhancing the production and marketing of Jefferson’s vast agricultural and forestry resources. The Office of Ag will be responsible for agriculture, fish, game and forestry. The Office of Agriculture will lend advice, and resources to a county, if requested. The office of Agriculture will be the lead agency in the event of agricultural emergency, pest invasion, crop blight or event that affects multiple counties.
Office of Education will be responsible to advise and to aid counties, when requested, to obtain materials, supplies, and expertise to construct and to facilitate curriculum which is designed to either aid in entrance to the university system or to provide technical education necessary to the skills, and economic success of the student. County government will largely determine the subject matter of local schools with the input of local citizens. Universities and Community Colleges will flourish as private entities. State expertise will be available upon request. Technical Colleges will also be encouraged as valuable resources to our state and its citizens. Peace Officer Standard Training, facilitated through the Jefferson Department of Justice will have curriculum approved by DOJ but conducted by the University system.
Office of Constitutional Review will be led by the Secretary of Constitutional Review. This is an elected position. There will be no violations, nor any Judicial, legislative, statutory, or regulatory infringement of the rights to self-defense, property, privacy, trial by jury, or any violations of the Declaration of Rights. Jefferson represents personal liberty for all of its citizens. The primary duty of the Secretary of Constitutional Compliance will be to ensure that statutory, judicial, legislative and regulatory processes do not interfere with the inalienable rights of Jefferson.
The Secretary will be responsible to review each and every piece of legislation, regulation, law, and statute prior to its internet posting for public review. This review is designed to ensure that all produce of the government of Jefferson is constitutional and will not infringe upon, nor alter the intent or function of the Jefferson Constitution or the rights of the Citizens as outlined in Article One, the Declaration of Rights. The Office of Constitutional Compliance will be responsible to see that any office or entity, tasked to implement any program, project, or legislation, acts with fiduciary caution, its employees have the proper training, and implementation is fair and balanced. Any act which fails to pass constitutional muster is null and void. Such acts will be sent back to the author for alteration , revision or scrapped altogether. Primary jurisdiction for any judicial appeal to review decisions will be to the Jefferson Supreme Court.
Jefferson Department of Justice will be responsible for multi-county law enforcement operations. County Sheriff’s Departments will each contribute Deputies for temporary duty to Jefferson DOJ. During their time with state service these Deputies can be trained in accident investigation, coroner investigations, forensics and other duties for which counties may lack training resources. JDOJ will oversee the POST academy standards for the university systems of Jefferson. Police Academy training will be conducted by the Community College or University System. JDOJ will be overseen by the States Attorney General. The States Attorney General is an elected officer and will also be the States Solicitor General to the United States Supreme Court. County Sheriffs will be the highest law enforcement officer within Jefferson. Sheriff’s Department will provide all law enforcement for Jefferson, with the exception of incorporated city police forces, by vote of elected city councils. There will be no armed law enforcement in the State of Jefferson except that of the County Sheriff’s. Federal law enforcement will not be allowed to operate in any given county except by one time MOU during emergencies, natural disaster, or time of war and only by consent of the County Sheriff involved. MOU’s, during such emergencies, must be renewed every six months. Should Jefferson require a state law enforcement presence, during an emergency, or for multi county emergency, Counties will contribute deputies. The law enforcement personnel will be under the command of the County Sheriff of the impacted county.
Jefferson State Militia will not participate in the United States National Guard system. Jefferson’s force for defense of State and Nation, during time of invasion or emergency, will be a state militia. Formation and Command structure will be decided by Constitutional Convention. Jefferson Militia will not be available for foreign wars, unless by approval of a vote of the people and the legislature. Jefferson Militia will supervise state firefighting, state office of emergency services, state search and rescue, defense of state and nation, during national emergency. Militia will be available to counties, during times of emergency, or natural disaster, upon request, provided Constitutional mandates are met.
The Constitution of the State of Jefferson will be largely modeled on the Federal Constitution. Article one will be the Declaration of Rights. The inalienable rights of the citizens are inviolate. The rights of Property are paramount to the people of Jefferson. There will be no violations, nor any legislative, statutory, or regulatory infringement of the rights to self-defense, property, privacy, trial by jury, or any violations of the Declaration of Rights. Jefferson represents personal liberty for all of its citizens. The primary duty of the Secretary of Constitutional Compliance will be to ensure that statutory, judicial, legislative and regulatory processes do not interfere with the inalienable rights of Jefferson.
The Jefferson Constitution represents the contract which defines the government created to serve the people. The rights of the people are absolute. The people of Jefferson do not surrender their sovereignty to the government created to serve them.
Our goal is to create a constitution designed to secure liberty for our posterity. Jefferson’s Constitution will be very difficult to change. If we succeed in our endeavor to restore Liberty through Constitutional Republic to Jefferson, we will have fulfilled our mandate, our promise, and our duty to future generations. Please stand with us.
The Time Has Come For 51
allstaractivist note: Thank you President Vladimir Putin, for thwarting our president’s treasonous plans. It’s a shame that we have to look to another State for salvation from a threat that our own government created, now wanting to unleash it here in America via Syrian “refugees”. How many traitors do you have to have in America for a condition like this to develop? For those who as yet don’t understand what is going on, here are the Cliffs Notes…
What is Occupy Peace?
Occupy Peace is unlike any other peace initiative. Formally launching at a rally at noon on September 20, 2015, at the corners of John and Crown Street in historic Kingston, NY, this peace movement is designed to create a platform to hold elected officials accountable for senselessly prompting war. It will drive a nationwide initiative to put peace on the ballot.
How will this get done?
The institute will work with inspiring and peace-minded historians and other experts to create a program that provides the tools to make peace a driving force in the halls of government and in the living rooms of Americans. Most notably, the movement will promote these tenants:
» No foreign entanglements.
» Wage war only when imminent threat exists.
» Zero tolerance for illegal wars based on lies and retreaded failed reasoning.
» Build communities here, not foreign nations elsewhere.
» Let the people vote on whether to fund wars.
At noon on Sept. 20, 2015, Gerald Celente and the Trends Research Institute will launch Occupy Peace, a movement designed to reinstate the core values that gave birth to this nation and provide the tools for advancing peace and restoring prosperity.
The Occupy Peace rally will take place at the oldest intersection in the United States. At the corners of Crown and John streets in Kingston, NY, stand four pre-Revolutionary War stone structures. Just a half-block away is the Kingston Courthouse, constructed in 1789. The courthouse, and buildings on the site dating to 1683, were the scene of critical episodes in the founding of the country
This movement is not designed to raise good vibes about peace, it is being shaped as a movement with teeth, vision and guts to demand peace in all circumstances except for imminent, measurable threats.
“There is no major, unified peace movement going on in America,” said Celente. “The constant talk from Washington, the presidential candidates and media is war, war and more war. Since George W. Bush launched the War on Terror in 2001, every few years there is a new enemy to attack, another country to invade and occupy, a new enemy to fear and hate.”
Occupy Peace will legally, culturally and strategically push for these guiding principles:
» No foreign entanglements.
» Wage war only when imminent threat exists.
» Zero tolerance for illegal wars based on lies and retreaded failed reasoning.
» Build communities here, not foreign nations elsewhere.
» Let the people vote on whether to fund wars.
The rally, fueled by what we hope are thousands of like-minded individuals gathering to learn how to advance strategy-driven peace initiatives in their communities, will motivate attendees to fight for peace while equipping them with the specific tools to get peace on the ballot.
In Celente’s own words:
“Occupy Peace was created to reinstate the values upon which this nation was founded by honoring thy founding fathers. George Washington, a real commander in chief, was a warrior who led and fought in battles, unlike little chicken hawks today who call themselves commander in chief. …“In his farewell address, Washington was emphatic in his call for no foreign entanglements. “
The notion of first rebuilding America stands no chance when constant talk of war consumes our political and popular mindset, and meaningful dialogue about peace does not exist. Talking about peace, demanding peace, is patriotic. No foreign entanglements is one of the most basic and fundamental principles upon which this country was founded.
Occupy Peace will build a platform for peace. The Trends Research Institute is working with inspiring and peace-minded historians and other experts. We’ll create a program that provides the tools to make peace a driving force in the halls of government and in the living rooms of Americans fed up with politicians, fed up with so-called military experts and fed up with a complacent media.
They were men on the run. They knew that if they were captured they’d be hung. But the dream of an independent American republic, articulated only the year before in the Declaration of Independence, was as strong as it was compelling.
In the wake of the declaration, the 13 American colonies were without a single government institution. When New York’s rebellious leaders gathered to draft the state’s first constitution, they gathered first in New York City. But the British presence there was strong; New York was becoming the Revolution’s major theater of war.
And so the delegates charged with creating a new state constitution fled to the north, up the verdant Hudson River Valley, first to White Plains, then west to Fishkill and finally, in February, 1777, north to the city of Kingston. There, the rebels began the hard work of drafting a new state constitution and by doing so, building a new country.
Their deliberations spanned vast historical and philosophical realms. But their footsteps took them from a courthouse to a tavern to private homes that were each within five minutes’ walk of the other. The streets they walked and some of the buildings they frequented are still easy to visit.
Two months after the rebels’ arrival in Kingston, on April 20, 1777, the New York State Constitution was ratified in what is now known as the Senate House, on Clinton Street. Three months later, on July 30, George Clinton was sworn in as the first governor of New York State in what is now the Ulster County Courthouse on Wall Street.
The state’s new governing body met for only a month that fall, establishing rules of governance and raising money for the militia. Members of the new government were keenly aware of the northward advance of British forces. On Oct. 6, the news spread that forts Clinton and Montgomery on the Hudson had fallen to the British. Ten days later, the British landed at Kingston; the new government fled further north to what has since become the state capital of Albany.
While the government survived, Kingston suffered a near-fatal blow. British forces under the command of General John Vaughan burned more than 254 homes, barns and public buildings. Vaughan later justified the deed by describing Kingston as “a Nursery for almost every Villain in the country.”
Most of the city’s residents, given ample warning of the attack, escaped with their lives. So too did the “villains” who took the state’s new democratic form of government north to Albany, where it survives to this day.
allstaractivist note: To understand what our military is really like inside, check out;
You can also skip to the bottom of this post for all four embedded videos. The military is behind Gang Stalking since most of what they do are Psy-Ops (Psychological Operations). Mrs. Kay Griggs talks about being “Gaslighted” by military operatives after she blew the whistle. It is also interesting to think that most police departments have “Veteran’s Preference” hiring policies and recruit heavily from the military. The police run Gang Stalking in whatever city you may be in. You can watch a video by Geo-scientist and Targeted Individual Ms. Leuren Moret for more on that. Anyway, this is just a good epilogue to the videos above so that you have a clearer understanding of just how dirty our military is, and just how involved they are in our day to day lives, unseen.
When you think about all that our country needs, Infrastructure, good schools, decent healthcare, jobs, protection for small business, police reform, the list goes on and on, what the hell are we doing in so many other peoples business and doing so much evil crap? Do any of those military bases we have across the globe help us with any of the above? Does any of the trillions of dollars both stolen and wasted benefit us or, a bunch of defense contractor mercenaries doing horrible things in our name? (9/10/2001: Rumsfeld announces $2.3 TRILLION Missing from Pentagon). Is making the world our enemy while enriching a bunch of military and corporate gangsters in the process what we want to sacrifice the lives of our children for? What good is it doing the average American? None, that’s the answer, no good at all.
We’ve lost control of the government and the government has total control over us now. We are all slaves that have just about finished their usefulness. We have allowed a small group of evil men and women conspiring in “Think Tanks” to draft federal policy without our input. Their biased academic authority substituting for the will and common sense of we the people. These two organizations below and any other entities that advocate “foreign entanglements” should be banned from effecting policy and be deemed illegal through an amendment to the Constitution.
President George Washington’s warning against us getting involved in any foreign entanglements, including the signing of treaties and military aid, was a sound admonishment back then just as it is now. If you look across the globe to nations who are neutral, at least in terms of military projection, you will find a population healthier, wealthier, and far less violent than ours.
|Founder||William Kristol, Robert Kagan|
|Type||Public policy think tank|
The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was a neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focused on United States foreign policy. It was established as a non-profit educational organization in 1997, and founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan. The PNAC’s stated goal was “to promote American global leadership”. The organization stated that “American leadership is good both for America and for the world,” and sought to build support for “a Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity”.
Of the twenty-five people who signed the PNAC’s founding statement of principles, ten went on to serve in the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, including Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz. Observers such as Irwin Stelzer and Dave Grondin have suggested that the PNAC played a key role in shaping the foreign policy of the Bush Administration, particularly in building support for the Iraq War. Academics such as Inderjeet Parmar, Phillip Hammond, and Donald E. Abelson have said PNAC’s influence on the George W. Bush administration has been exaggerated.
|Executive Director||Christopher J. Griffin|
|Location||Washington, D.C., USA|
The Foreign Policy Initiative (FPI) is an American think tank. According to its website, the FPI is committed to robust support for democratic allies, human rights, a strong American military equipped to meet the challenges of the 21st century, and strengthening America’s global economic competitiveness. The organization was founded in 2009 and is led by Executive Christopher J. Griffin. FPI is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.
FPI’s Board of Directors consists of former Undersecretary of Defense for PolicyEric S. Edelman, Dan Senor, Editor of The Weekly StandardWilliam Kristol and Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Robert Kagan. The latter two were project directors of the neoconservative Project for the New American Century.
America, cast off foreign entanglements and return to the Proclamation of Neutrality!
|This article is part of a series about
President of the United States
George Washington’s Farewell Address is a letter written by the first American President, George Washington, to “The People of the United States of America”. Washington wrote the letter near the end of his second term as President, before his retirement to his home Mount Vernon. Originally published in Daved Claypole’s American Daily Advertiser on September 19, 1796, under the title “The Address of General Washington To The People of The United States on his declining of the Presidency of the United States,” the letter was almost immediately reprinted in newspapers across the country and later in a pamphlet form. The work was later named a “Farewell Address,” as it was Washington’s valedictory after 20 years of service to the new nation. It is a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values.
Foreign relations and free trade
Washington dedicates a large part of his farewell address to discussing foreign relations, and the dangers of permanent alliances between the United States and foreign nations; so-called ‘foreign entanglements’. This issue dominated national politics during the French Revolutionary Wars between France and Britain. Federalists favored Britain and the Jeffersonian Republicans favored France. They wanted the U.S. to honor the 1778 Treaty of Alliance, which established the France-American alliance, and aid France. Washington had avoided American involvement in the conflict by issuing the Proclamation of Neutrality, which in turn led to the Neutrality Act of 1794. He clearly tries to further explain his approach to foreign policy and alliances in this portion of the address.
Once again making reference to proper behavior based upon religious doctrine and morality, Washington advocates a policy of good faith and justice towards all nations, and urges the American people to avoid long-term friendly relations or rivalries with any nation. He argues these attachments and animosity toward nations will only cloud the government’s judgment in its foreign policy. Washington argues that longstanding poor relations will only lead to unnecessary wars due to a tendency to blow minor offenses out of proportion when committed by nations viewed as enemies of the United States. He continues this argument by claiming that alliances are likely to draw the United States into wars which have no justification and no benefit to the country beyond simply defending the favored nation. Washington continues his warning on alliances by claiming that they often lead to poor relations with nations who feel that they are not being treated as well as America’s allies, and threaten to influence the American government into making decisions based upon the will of their allies instead of the will of the American people.
Washington makes an extended reference to the dangers of foreign nations who will seek to influence the American people and government. He makes a point to say that he believes both nations who may be considered friendly as well as nations considered enemies will try to influence the government to do their will and it will only be “real patriots” who ignore popular opinion and resist the influence of friendly nations to seek what is best for their own country. Washington had a recent experience with foreign interference, when in 1793 the French ambassador Edmond-Charles Genêt organized demonstrations in support of France, funded soldiers to attack Spanish lands, and commissioned privateers to seize British ships. His mobilization of supporters to sway American opinion in favor of an alliance with France crossed the line and he was ordered to leave.
Washington goes on to urge the American people to take advantage of their isolated position in the world, and avoid attachments and entanglements in foreign affairs, especially those of Europe, which he argues have little or nothing to do with the interests of America. He argues that it makes no sense for the American people to wage war on European soil when their isolated position and unity will allow them to remain neutral and focus on their own affairs. As a result, Washington argues that the country should avoid permanent alliance with all foreign nations, although temporary alliances during times of extreme danger may be necessary, but does say that current treaties should be honored although not extended. (Despite his claim that current alliances should be honored, Washington had in fact through the Proclamation of Neutrality not honored the Treaty of Alliance, which promised aid in case the French were ever attacked by the British.)
Washington wraps up his foreign policy stance by advocating free trade with all nations arguing that trade links should be established naturally and the role of the government should be limited to insuring stable trade, defending the rights of American merchants, and any provisions necessary to insure that the government is able to insure the conventional rules of trade.
The Proclamation of Neutrality was a formal announcement issued by U.S. President George Washington in May 1793, declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war.
News that Revolutionary France had declared war on Great Britain in February 1793, and with this declaration that France, by the country’s own volition, was now at war with all of Europe, did not reach America until the first half of April of that year. President Washington was at Mount Vernon attending the funeral of a nephew when he was given the news. He hurried back to Pennsylvania and summoned an emergency meeting of his cabinet.
In this initial meeting, Washington relayed the news, and gave each member of his cabinet a list of 13 questions. He wanted their answers to these questions, he explained, in time for their meeting the following day. These questions ranged from “Should the United States receive an ambassador from France?” to “Should earlier treaties still apply?” But first and foremost came the question: “Should the United States issue an official proclamation of neutrality?”
Washington’s cabinet members agreed that neutrality was essential; the nation was too young and its military was too small to risk any sort of engagement with either France or Britain. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, in particular, saw in this question, as well as in the other twelve, the influence of the Federalists — his political rivals; yet he too agreed a proclamation was in order, though perhaps not an official one.
In a cabinet meeting of January 14, Thomas Jefferson argued that while neutrality was a sine qua non, there was no real need to make a Proclamation of Neutrality either immediately or even officially; perhaps there might be no need for an official declaration at all. The United States could declare its neutrality for a price, Jefferson intimated, “Why not stall and make countries bid for [American] neutrality?” In response, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton declared that American neutrality was not negotiable. Jefferson eventually resigned from his duty as Secretary of State in disagreement with the Proclamation of Neutrality.
The proclamation started a war of pamphlets between Hamilton (writing for the Federalists), and Madison (writing for the Jeffersonian/Republicans). In his seven essays, written under the nom de plume “Pacificus”, Hamilton dealt with objections to the proclamation. Among these were:
- The decree was, in fact, constitutional; for while Congress has the sole right to declare war, it is “the duty of the executive to preserve peace till war is declared.”
- The Neutrality Proclamation did not violate the United States’ defensive alliance with France, as the Jeffersonians were claiming. The treaty, Hamilton pointed out, was a defensive alliance and did not apply to offensive wars, “and it was France that had declared war upon other European powers”, not the other way around.
- By siding with France the United States would have left itself open to attacks within American borders by the governments of Britain and Spain stirring up “numerous Indian tribes” influenced by these two governments.
Jefferson, (having read several of the “Pacificus” essays) encouraged James Madison to reply. Madison was initially hesitant. From his Virginia plantation he offered Jefferson excuses as to why he could not write a reply, including that he didn’t have the necessary books and papers to refute “Pacificus”, that the summer heat was “oppressive”, and that he had many houseguests who were wearing out their welcome. Ultimately Madison agreed to Jefferson’s request, though afterwards he wrote to him, “I have forced myself in to the task of a reply. I can truly say I find it the most grating one I have ever experienced.”
Writing under the name “Helvidius”, Madison’s five essays showed the animosity that had evolved with the two political factions. He attacked Federalists, and Hamilton in particular, and anyone who supported the Neutrality Proclamation as secret monarchists, declaring: “Several features with the signature of Pacificus were [as of] late published, which have been read with singular pleasure and applause by the foreigners and degenerate citizens among us, who hate our republican government and the French Revolution.” Madison brought to light the strict constructionist’s view of both the Constitution and the Proclamation, demanding that Congress, not the president, had full authority over all foreign affairs except those areas specified in the Constitution.
“The argument that the two parties should represent opposed ideals and policies, one, perhaps, of the Right and the other of the Left, is a foolish idea acceptable only to the doctrinaire and academic thinkers.”
“Instead, the two parties should be almost identical, so the American people can ‘throw the rascals out’ at any election without leading to any profound or extreme shifts in policy.”
Former Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) archivist and Georgetown University professor Carroll Quigley, who is known as being President Bill Clinton’s mentor, wrote the above quote in his 1966 book “Tragedy and Hope“—
False Left-Right Paradigm: The political theory that members of opposing political parties such as Republican and Democrat deceptively share common interests and goals, as a one body ruling authority over the masses. The two parties act to create divisiveness and influence the general population while keeping control of the political spectrum. The false left-right paradigm political theory is closely related to theory of Inverted totalitarianism and Managed Democracy.
The False Left-Right Paradigm theorizes that opposing political groups use their influence over the establishment media to dramatize party warfare distraction, in grand performances of bureaucratic rivalry meant to propagandize and divide the populace. Psychological deception is coordinated on all levels of politics and fed through controlled media outlets to divert attention away from the ruling class’s hidden agendas. By drawing attention to differences between two political systems, ideologies, races, and classes, the political groups obscure and divide unity among the masses. The tactic creates confusion and frustration among the population, enabling the global elite to increase and consolidate their wealth and power through maintaining an illusion of a two-party system of checks and balances.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis. Various forms of activism range from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. Research is beginning to explore how activist groups in the United States and Canada are using social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.
Activists can function in roles as public officials, as in judicial activism. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., introduced the term “judicial activism” in a January 1947 Fortune magazine article titled “The Supreme Court: 1947”. Activists are also public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people: all government must be accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism is an engaged citizenry.
Some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change or not to change laws. Other activists try to persuade people to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, and generally does not lobby or protest politically.
As with those who engage in other activities such as singing or running, the term may apply broadly to anyone who engages in it even briefly, or be more narrowly limited to those for whom it is a vocation, habit, or characteristic practice. In the narrower sense, environmental activists that align themselves with Earth First or Road Protestors would commonly be labeled activists, whilst a local community fighting to stop their park or green being sold off or built on would fit the broader application, due to their using similar means to similarly conservative ends. In short, activism is not always an action by Activists.
For more than fourteen years, groups involved in various forms of activism have been using the Internet to advance organizational goals. It has been argued that the Internet helps to increase the speed, reach and effectiveness of activist-related communication as well as mobilization efforts, and as a result has had a positive impact on activism in general.
The activism industry consists of organizations and individuals engaged in activism. Activism is often done full-time, as part of an organization’s core business. Many organizations in the activism industry are either non profit organizations or non-governmental organizations. Most activist organizations do not manufacture goods.
The term activism industry has often been used to refer to outsourced fundraising operations. However, activist organizations engage in other activities as well. Lobbying, or the influencing of decisions made by government, is another activist tactic. Many groups, including law firms, have designated staff assigned specifically for lobbying purposes. In the United States, lobbying is regulated by the federal government.
Many government systems encourage public support of non-profit organizations by granting various forms of tax relief for donations to charitable organizations. Governments may attempt to deny these benefits to activists by restricting the political activity of tax-exempt organizations.
||This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2012)|