|Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|
|Motto: “Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn“ (Luxembourgish)
“We want to remain what we are”
|Anthem: Ons Heemecht
and largest city
|Government||Unitary parliamentaryconstitutional monarchy|
|–||Prime Minister (list)||Xavier Bettel|
|Legislature||Chamber of Deputies|
|–||from French Empire
(Treaty of Paris)
|9 June 1815|
|–||1st Treaty of London||19 April 1839|
|–||2nd Treaty of London||11 May 1867|
|–||End of personal union||23 November 1890|
|–||Founded the EEC(now the European Union)||1 January 1958|
|–||Total||2,586.4 km2 (179th)
998.6 sq mi
|–||2014 estimate||549 680 (170th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|–||Per capita||$79,785 (1st)|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|–||Per capita||$107,206 (1st)|
low · 6th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.881
very high · 21st
|Currency||Euro (€)b (EUR)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|–||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||LU|
|a.||Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.|
|b.||Before 1999, Luxembourgish franc.|
|c.||The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states.|
|d.||^ “CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index”. United States government. Retrieved 3 May 2013.|
Luxembourg (i/ˈlʌksəmbɜrɡ/), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French:Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg), is alandlocked country in Western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. It comprises two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland (“good country”) in the south. Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012 and has an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), making it one of the smallest sovereign nations in Europe.
As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a grand duke and is the world’s only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and the world’s second highest GDP (PPP) per capita (after Qatar), according to the World Bank. Its central location has historically made it of great strategic importance to numerous powers, dating back to its founding as a Roman fortress, its hosting of a vital Frankish castle during the Early Middle Ages, and its role as a bastion for the Spanish Road between 16th and 17th centuries.
Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, NATO, OECD, the United Nations, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour ofeconomic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. On 18 October 2012, Luxembourg was elected to a temporary seat on the United Nations Security Council for the first time in its history. The country will serve on the Security Council from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2014. Reflecting its geographic position, Luxembourg’s culture is a fusion of Romanic and Germanic Europe, integrating customs of each. Accordingly, Luxembourg is a trilingual country: Luxembourgish, French andGerman are official languages. Although a secular state, Luxembourg is predominantly Roman Catholic.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc (today Luxembourg Castle) situated on the Bock rock bySiegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin’s Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned asHoly Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg’s fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs,Hohenzollerns and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. TheCongress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation in personal union with the Netherlands, being at the same time a part of the Netherlands and ruled as one of its provinces, with a Confederate fortress manned by Prussian troops. This situation was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg’s full independence is reckoned.
The Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839 reduced Luxembourg’s territory by more than half, as the predominantly francophonewestern part of the country was transferred to Belgium. Luxembourg’s full independence was established by the 1839 First Treaty of London. In the same year, Luxembourg joined the Zollverein. Luxembourg’s independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, after the Luxembourg Crisis nearly led to war between Prussia and France. After the latter conflict, the Confederate fortress was dismantled.
The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the Dutch throne passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (at that time restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.
During World War II, Luxembourg was unable to maintain its policy of neutrality when in 1940 Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country, due to its strategic location on the invasion route into France. In contrast to the First World War experience, Luxembourg was treated as a Germanic territory and informally annexed to an adjacent province of the Third Reich in 1940. A government in exile based in London fought alongside the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944. It became a founding member of theUnited Nations in 1945, and of NATO in 1949.
In 1951, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1957 would become the European Economic Community and in 1993 the European Union, and in 1999 Luxembourg joined theeuro currency area. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held in Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers. The Grand Duke has the power to dissolve the legislature, in which case new elections must be held within three months. However, since 1919, sovereignty has resided with the Nation, exercised by the Grand Duke in accordance with the Constitution and the law.
Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral legislature of sixty members, who are directly elected to five-year terms from four constituencies. A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d’État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.
The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals (justices de paix; in Esch-sur-Alzette, the city of Luxembourg, and Diekirch), two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch) and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an Administrative Tribunal and an Administrative Court, as well as a Constitutional Court, all of which are located in the capital.
The three Partitions of Luxembourg have greatly reduced Luxembourg’s territory.
Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime. Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Unionand was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village of Schengen where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.
Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (“Eurostat“) and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in nearby Strasbourg.
Luxembourg also lacks an air force, though the 17 NATO AWACS aeroplanes are for convenience registered as aircraft of Luxembourg. In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgium, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane.
Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 179th in size of all the194 independent countries of the world; the country is about 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi) in size, and measures 82 km (51 mi) long and 57 km (35 mi) wide. It lies between latitudes 49° and 51° N, and longitudes 5° and 7° E.
To the east, Luxembourg borders the German Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate andSaarland, and, to the south, it borders the French région of Lorraine. The Grand Duchy borders the Belgian Walloon Region, in particular the latter’s provinces of Luxembourg andLiège, part of which comprises the German-speaking Community of Belgium, to the west and to the north respectively.
The northern third of the country is known as the ‘Oesling‘, and forms part of the Ardennes. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange, which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). Other mountains are the ‘Buurgplaaz’ at 559 metres near Huldange and the ‘Napoléonsgaard’ at 554 metres near Rambrouch. The region is sparsely populated, with only one town (Wiltz) with a population of more than four thousand people.
The southern two-thirds of the country is called the “Gutland“, and is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse, and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. The Luxembourg plateau, in south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat,sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg. Little Switzerland, in the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border. The Red Lands, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg’s industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg’s largest towns.
The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our. Other major rivers are the Alzette, the Attert, the Clerve, and the Wiltz. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling.
According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Luxembourg is one of the world’s best performers in environmental protection, ranking 4th out of 132 assessed countries
Luxembourg’s stable and high-income market economy features moderate growth, lowinflation, and a high level of innovation. Unemployment is traditionally low, although it had risen to 6.1% by May 2012, due largely to the effect of the 2008 global financial crisis. Consequently, Luxembourg’s economy is forecast to have negligible growth in 2012. In 2011, according to the IMF, Luxembourg was the second richest country in the world, with a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity (PPP) basis of $80,119.Luxembourg is ranked 13th in the Heritage Foundation‘s Index of Economic Freedom,26th in the United Nations Human Development Index, and 4th in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index.
The industrial sector, which was dominated by steel until the 1960s, has since diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in thefinancial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel production. Services, especially banking and finance, account for the majority of economic output. Luxembourg is the world’s second largest investment fund centre (after the United States), the most important private banking centre in the eurozone and Europe’s leading centre for reinsurance companies. Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract internet start-ups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg.
In April 2009, concern about Luxembourg’s banking secrecy laws, as well as its reputation as a tax haven, led to its being added to a “grey list” of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G20. In response, the country soon after adopted OECD standards on exchange of information and was subsequently added into the category of “jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard”. In March 2010, the Sunday Telegraph reported that most of Kim Jong-Il’s $4bn in secret accounts is in Luxembourg banks.Amazon.co.uk also benefits from Luxembourg tax loopholes by channeling substantial UK revenues as reported by The Guardian in April 2012. Luxembourg ranked third on the Tax Justice Network‘s 2011 Financial Secrecy Index of the world’s major tax havens, scoring only slightly behind the Cayman Islands. In 2013, Luxembourg is ranked as the 2nd safest tax haven in the world, behind Switzerland.
Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms.
With $147 billion (April 2013), the country ranks eleventh in the world in holdings of U.S. Treasury securities. The ranking is however imperfect as some foreign owners entrust the safekeeping of their securities to institutions that are neither in the United States nor in the owner’s country of residence.
Luxembourg has efficient road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernised in recent years with 147 km (91 mi) of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGVlink to Paris has led to renovation of the city’s railway station while a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport has opened some years ago. There are plans to introducetrams in the capital and light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.
The telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalised and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet Telecom of the Government of 2011 which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgean law. This encourages the investment in networks and services. The regulator ILR – Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation ensures the compliance to these legal rules
Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fiber and cable networks throughout the country. In 2010, the Luxembourg Government launched its National strategy for very high-speed networks with the aim to become a global leader in terms of very high-speed broadband by achieving full 1 Gbit/s coverage of the country by 2020. In 2011, Luxembourg had an NGA coverage of 75%. In April 2013, Luxembourg featured the 6th highest download speed worldwide and the 2nd highest in Europe: 32,46 Mbit/s. The country’s location in Central Europe, stable economy and low taxes favour the telecommunication industry.
It ranks 2nd in the world in the development of the Information and Communication Technologies in the ITU ICT Development Index and 8th in the Global Broadband Quality Study 2009 by the University of Oxford and the University of Oviedo.
Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges (AMS-IX Amsterdam,DE-CIX Frankfurt, LINX London), datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks. In addition, the country is connected to the virtual meetme room services (vmmr) of the international data hub operator Ancotel. This enables Luxembourg to interconnect with all major telecommunication operators and data carriers worldwide. The interconnection points are in Frankfurt, London, New York and Hong Kong.
Several providers interconnect Luxembourg to the major European data hubs:
- Teralink (P&TLuxembourg, also called EPT Luxembourg: incumbent operator)
- LuxConnect (shareholder : Government) LuxConnect tested the 100G coherent transmission of data signals between Luxembourg and Amsterdam in June 2011.
- Artelis/Cegecom (alternative telecommunications provider in Luxembourg and Saarland)
- Satellite connectivity – Teleports (SES), Broadcasting Center Europe and P&T Luxembourg Teleport.
Luxembourg is connected through an optical DWDM network, called Teralink to several Tier 1 upstream providers like Level3 and Global Crossing. Teralink offers connectivities up to 100 Gbit/s. P&TLuxembourg established a coherent 100Gbit/s IP connection between Frankfurt and Luxembourg with live traffic in 2011.
The Internet IPV6 protocol has been introduced to the country by Restena and P&T Luxembourg.
- LU-CIX is Luxembourg’s neutral and commercial Internet Exchange Point which was founded in 2009 by Cegecom, Datacentre Luxembourg, Global Media Systems, INEXIO, LuxConnect, P&T Luxemboug and Root eSolutions. It offers a short, fast and efficient route to the major European Internet networks. In 2012, LIX, the neutral Internet exchange operated by the RESTENA Foundation, merged with LU-CIX. In March 2013, LU-CIX launched the ‘Central European Peering Hub’ in order to provide the opportunity to its members to connect to other IXs’ reseller programs, AMS-IX (Amsterdam), LINX (London), DE-CIX (Frankfurt) and France-IX (Paris), etc.
- LIX is the Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange located in the Tier IV certified eBRC datacentre.
The online portal De Guichet of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a single one-stop online shop for citizens and companies to undertake various administrative operations (procedures, online forms, downloadable forms and advice) by Internet.
Some 20 data centres are operating in Luxembourg. Three data centers are Tier IV classified & certified: two of ebrc  and one of European Data Hub. In a survey on 9 international data centers carried out in December 2012 and January 2013 and measuring availability (up-time) and performance (delay by which the data from the requested website was received), the top 3 positions were held by Luxembourg data centers.
The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. The immigrant population increased in the 20th century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from the latter: in 2013 there were about 88,000 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality.
Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina,Montenegro, and Serbia. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well as Eastern Europe. In 2000, there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 undocumented migrants in Luxembourg in 1999.
Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German, andLuxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region that is also spoken in neighbouring parts of Belgium, France and Germany. Though Luxembourgish is part of the West Central German group of High German languages, more than 5,000 words in the language are of French origin. The first printed sentences in Luxembourgish appeared in a weekly journal, the ‘Luxemburger Wochenblatt’, in the second edition of 14 April 1821.
Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or “language of the heart” for nearly all Luxembourgers.
Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres. Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other, but it is not often used as the written language. Since the 1980s, an increasing number of novels have however been written in Luxembourgish. Most official (written) business is carried out in French. German is usually the first language taught in school and is the language of much of the media and of thechurch.
Luxembourg’s education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German, while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French. Proficiency in all three languages is required for graduation from secondary school, but half the students leave school without a certified qualification, with the children of immigrants being particularly disadvantaged.
In addition to the three official languages, English is taught in the compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English, especially in Luxembourg City. Portuguese, the language of the largest immigrantcommunity, is also spoken by large parts of the population, but by relatively few from outside their community.
French is the preferred language of the government. Official legislation must be conducted in French.
Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognises certain religions as officially mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages. Currently, religions covered by such arrangements are Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Mennonitism and Islam.
Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices. An estimation by the CIA Factbook for the year 2000 is that 87% of Luxembourgers are Catholic, including the royal family, the remaining 13% being made up of Muslims, Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, and those of other or no religion. According to a 2010 Pew Research Center study 70.4% are Christian, 2.3% Muslim, 26.8% unaffiliated and 0.5% other religions
According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that “they believe there is a God“, whereas 28% answered that “they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force” and 22% that “they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force”.
The University of Luxembourg is the only university in the country.
Luxembourg sells the most alcohol in Europe per capita. However, the large proportion of alcohol purchased by customers from neighbouring countries contributes to the statistically high level of alcohol sales per capita; this level of alcohol sales is thus not representative of the actual alcohol consumption of the Luxembourg population.
Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours. It retains a number of folk traditions, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. These include the National Museum of History and Art (MNHA), the Luxembourg City History Museum, and the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam). The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. The city of Luxembourg itself is on theUNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.
The country has produced some internationally knowned artists, including the painters Théo Kerg,Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, and photographer Edward Steichen, whose The Family of Man exhibition has been placed on UNESCO’s Memory of the World register, and is now permanently housed in Clervaux. Movie star Loretta Young was of Luxembourgish descent.
Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, the European Capital of Culture was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders in all areas, physical, psychological, artistic and emotional.
Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion. The pavilion was based on the transliteration of the word Luxembourg into Chinese, “Lu Sen Bao”, which means “Forest and Fortress”. It represented Luxembourg as the “Green Heart in Europe”.
Unlike in most countries in Europe, sport in Luxembourg is not concentrated upon a particular national sport, but encompasses a number of sports, both team and individual. Despite the lack of a central sporting focus, over 100,000 people in Luxembourg, which has a total population of only 512,353, are licensed members of one sports federation or another. The largest sports venue in the country is d’Coque, an indoor arena and Olympic swimming pool in Kirchberg, north-eastern Luxembourg City, which has a capacity of 8,300. The arena is used for basketball, handball, gymnastics, and volleyball, including the final of the 2007 Women’s European Volleyball Championship. The largest, and national, stadium is the Stade Josy Barthel, in western Luxembourg City; named after the country’s only official Olympic gold medallist, the stadium has a capacity of 8,054.
Famous sportspeople include Marc Girardelli, former alpine ski racer and five-time World Cup overall champion, Gilles Müller and Mandy Minella, both professional tennis players, and Andy Schleck and Fränk Schleck, both professional cyclists for RadioShack-Nissan-Trek who are best known as climbers who excel in the mountain stages of Grand Tours like the Tour de France.
Luxembourg cuisine reflects its position on the border between the Latin and Germanic worlds, being heavily influenced by the cuisines of neighboring France and Germany. More recently, it has been enriched by its many Italian and Portugueseimmigrants.
Bouneschlupp is considered to be a Luxemburgish national dish
The main languages of media in Luxembourg are French and German. The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort. In addition there are both English and Portuguese radio and national print publications but accurate audience figures are difficult to gauge since the national media survey by ILRES  is conducted in French.
Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations (Radio Luxembourg and RTL Group). It is also the uplink home of SES, carrier of major European satellite services for Germany and Britain.
Due to a 1988 law that established a special tax scheme for audiovisual investment, the film and co-production in Luxembourg has grown steadily. There are some 30 registered production companies in Luxembourg.
- , Statec figures.
- “Luxembourg”. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- “Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)”. Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- “2014 Human Development Report Summary”. United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- pronounced [ˈgʀəʊ̯sˌhɛχt͡soːktuːm ˈlət͡səbuɐ̯ɕ]
- pronounced [ˈgʁoːsˌhɛʁt͡soːktuːm ˈlʊksəmˌbʊʁk]
- “Everything you need to know about the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg”.
- “The first results of the population census”, Statistics Portal, Luxembourg. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- “Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table”. Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- Kreins (2003), p. 20
- “History of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg” (PDF).
- Kreins (2003), p. 39
- Kreins (2003), p. 70
- Thewes, Guy (2006) (PDF). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (2006), p. 208
- “LUXEMBURG Geschiedenis”. Landenweb.net. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- “Central Intelligence Agency”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1997
- “Emperor Charles IV elected Greatest Czech of all time”. Radio Prague. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- Kreins (2003), p. 76
- Kreins (2003), pp. 80–81
- Kreins (2003), p. 81
- Kreins (2003), p. 84
- Timeline: Luxembourg – A chronology of key events BBC News Online, 9 September 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
- “The Luxembourgish government since 1848 (in French)”.
- “Constitution of Luxembourg” (PDF). Service central de législation. 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
- “Structure of the Conseil d’Etat”. Conseil d’Etat. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
- “Carte des communes – Luxembourg.lu – Cartes du Luxembourg”. Luxembourg.public.lu. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- “Luxembourg”. Aeroflight.co.uk. 8 September 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
- “A400M Loadmaster, Future Large Aircraft – FLA, Avion de Transport Futur – ATF”, GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Mountains in Luxembourg at the Wayback Machine(archived June 10, 2007), recueil de statistiques par commune. statistiques.public.lu (2003) p. 20
- Environmental Performance Index 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- “Luxembourg”. Stadtklima (Urban Climate). Archived fromthe original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- “The Global Innovation Index 2012”. INSEAD. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- “Statistics Portal, Luxembourg”. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- “Growth in 2012”, Which economies will grow and shrink the fastest in 2012?. The Economist online 4 January 2012.
- Data refer mostly to the year 2011. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2012, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 18 April 2012.
- “2011 Index of Economic Freedom”. The Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- “World Life Quality Index 2005” (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
- “Luxembourg makes progress in OECD standards on tax information exchange”. OECD. 8 July 2009.
- “A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum” (PDF). OECD. July 2009.
- Arlow, Oliver, “Kim Jong-il keeps $4bn ’emergency fund’ in European banks”, Sunday Telegraph, 14 March 2010.
- Griffiths, Ian (4 April 2012). “How one word change lets Amazon pays less tax on its UK activities”. London: TheGuardian.
- “Major foreign holders of treasury securities”. U.S.Department of the Treasury.
- “What are the problems of geographic attribution for securities holdings and transactions in the TIC system?”. U.S.Treasury International Capital (TIC) reporting system.
- Top Ten: Die Länder mit der höchsten Pkw-Dichte(German), Manager Magazin, 2 April 2010.
- Loi du 27 février 2011 sur les réseaux et les services de communications électroniques. Legilux.public.lu. Retrieved on 23 January 2013.
- Communications électroniques. Institut luxembourgeois de régulation (28 April 2011). Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- François Biltgen et Jeannot Krecké présentent leur stratégie pour un Internet ultra rapide pour tous.
- “Study on broadband coverage 2011. Retrieved on 25 January 2013.”. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- “Household Download Index. Retrieved on 9 April 2013”. Netindex.com. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- Eurohub Luxembourg – putting Europe at your fingertips at the Wayback Machine (archived November 19, 2008). Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade of Luxembourg. August 2008
- “American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg – Why Luxembourg?”.
- “Financial express special issue on Luxembourg” (PDF). 23 June 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- pressinfo (23 February 2010). “Press Release: New ITU report shows global uptake of ICTs increasing, prices falling”. Itu.int. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- “Luxembourg ranks on the top in the ITU ICT survey”.[dead link]
- “Global Broadband Quality Study”.
- “Global Broadband Quality Study Shows Progress, Highlights Broadband Quality Gap” (PDF). Said Business School, University of Oxford. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “ams-ix.net”. ams-ix.net. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- “de-cix.net”. de-cix.net. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- “linx.net”. linx.net. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- “ICT Business Environment in Luxembourg”. Luxembourgforict.lu. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Tom Kettels (15 May 2009). “ICT And E-Business – Be Global from Luxembourg” (PDF). Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “PricewaterhouseCoopers Invest in Luxembourg”. Pwc.com. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “Why Luxembourg? A highly strategic position in the heart of Europe”. teralink.lu. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “ITU-T ICT Statistics : Luxembourg”. Itu.int. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “Telx Partners with German Hub Provider ancotel to Provide Virtual Connections between U.S. and Europe” (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Ancotel.de. Ancotel.de. Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- “Ancotel – Telecommunication Operator References”. Ancotel.de. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “Networks Accessible in Frankfurt via the VMMR Solution offered by Telx/ancotel” (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “Teralink”. Teralink.lu. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- “Teralink P&T Luxembourg”.
- Luxconnect.lu. Luxconnect.lu. Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- “LuxConnect hosted the first coherent 100G service testing”.
- Artelis.lu. Artelis.lu. Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- SES.com. SES.com. Retrieved on 28 October 2013.
- EUROPEAN TELECOM NETWORK at the Wayback Machine (archived July 22, 2011). broadcasting center Europe. BCE.lu
- Teralink.lu. Teralink.lu. Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- “The World Teleport Directory”.
- “Uplink Stations”.
- Teralink.lu. Teralink.lu (16 December 2011). Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- “International Solutions TERALINK and Cloud services”(PDF).
- “Luxembourg, Your European Hub for Online Business and E-Commerce” (PDF).
- “P&TLuxembourg employs Alcatel-Lucent for 100G optical, Ethernet network”.
- “P&T Luxembourg Does 100G With AlcaLu”.
- “IPv6 Council Luxembourg” (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- “Why LU-CIX”.
- “LU-CIX in P&T Solutions”.
- “Merger between LIX and LU-CIX”.
- “LU-CIX and IX Reach Open up Connectivity to Major Internet Exchanges”.
- “Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange (LEX)”.
- Guichet.public.lu. Guichet.public.lu. Retrieved on 24 December 2011.
- “A future for all in the information society.”.
- “PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution.”.
- “PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution.”.
- “European Datacentres: Luxembourg”.
- “Luxembourg as a Centre for Online and ICT Business (pdf).”.
- “Data Center Europe”.
- “ebrc Datacenter Facilities”.
- “Uptime Tier Certification”.
- “New data center study: Luxembourg in pole position”.
- “Soluxions magazine: Luxembourg en pole position”.
- “Luxembourg Presidency – Being a Luxembourger”. Eu2005.lu. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- “Population par sexe et par nationalité (x 1 000) 1981, 1991, 2001 – 2013”. Le portail des Statistiques. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
- Amanda Levinson. “The Regularisation of Unauthorised Migrants: Literature Survey and Country Case Studies – Regularisation programmes in Luxembourg” (PDF). Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
- “Origins of Luxembourgish (in French)”. Migration Information Source.
- Lëtzebuergesch léieren (in French) Migration Information Source
- “Europeans and Their Languages” (PDF). European Commission. 2006. p. 7. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
- (French) “À propos des langues” (PDF). Service Information et Presse. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
- “The Trilingual Education system in Luxembourg”. Tel2l – Teacher Education by Learning through two languages, University of Navarra. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
- “Immigration in Luxembourg: New Challenges for an Old Country”. Migration Information Source. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
- “Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR)”. Europarl.europa.eu. 14 December 2000. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- (French) “D’Wort article (German)”. http://www.wort.lu. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
- (French) “Mémorial A, 1979, No. 29” (PDF). Service central de législation. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
- “World Factbook – Luxembourg”. Central Intelligence Agency. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
- Global Religious Landscape Pew Research Center 2010
- Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11
- “World/Global Alcohol/Drink Consumption 2009”.
- “Consommation annuelle moyenne d’alcool par habitant, Catholic Ministry of Health”. sante.gouv.fr. 2007.
- “Culture”. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Luxembourg. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- “Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007”. June 2008. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011.
- “Environmental Report for Expo 2010 Shanghai China”. June 2009. p. 85. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
- “Luxembourg pavilion at the World Expo 2010 Shanghai”.
- “Luxembourg pavilion displays green heart of Europe”(PDF). Shanghai Daily. 12 November 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- “Luxembourg”. Council of Europe. 2003. Archived from the original on 23 June 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- “Luxembourg, a film country”. Eu2005.lu. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- The Film Fund of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg“Luxembourgish Film Production Companies”.
- Kreins, Jean-Marie (2003). Histoire du Luxembourg (in French) (3rd ed.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.ISBN 978-2-13-053852-3.
- Thewes, Guy (July 2003). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (PDF) (in French) (Édition limitée ed.). Luxembourg City: Service Information et Presse. ISBN 2-87999-118-8. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
- Plan d’action national luxembourgeois en matière de TIC et de haut-débit
- CEE- Europe’s Digital Competitiveness Report –Volume 2: i2010 –ICT Country Profiles- page 40-41
- Inauguration of LU-CIX
- Art and Culture in Luxembourg
|Find more about Luxembourgat Wikipedia’s sister projects|
|Definitions and translationsfrom Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website (French)
- Luxembourg from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Luxembourg entry at The World Factbook
- Luxembourg at DMOZ
- Luxembourg profile from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Luxembourg